COGM109 Аналогия


Analogy plays a central role in human cognition: memory, learning, categorization, decision making, among other processes. This course provides an overview of the theoretical and research literatures on analogical reasoning and explores the cognitive mechanisms of analogy and the role of analogical comparison in cognition. The aims of the course are to introduce students to a dynamic area of research and to provide specific examples of interdisciplinary research spanning the fields of cognitive psychology, computational modeling, neuroscience, developmental psychology, and comparative (animal cognition) research. Finally, students will learn more about research developed and conducted at the Research Center for Cognitive Science at NBU.

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Когнитивна наука (на английски език)


доц. Милена Мутафчиева  д-р
доц. Пенка Христова  д-р
ас. Маргарита Павлова  д-р

Описание на курса:


Upon completion of this course students will:

1. Know:

a. The main computational models and theoretical perspectives of human analogical reasoning

b. The experimental evidence of human analogical reasoning ability and how various factors affect it.

c. The main debates in the field, and the points of view of the leading researchers in the field.

2. Be able to:

a. Demonstrate familiarity with various theoretical and empirical findings as well as the central concepts and ideas in analogy research.

b. Demonstrate a detailed and critical understanding of research papers, both theoretical and empirical, and identify and explain significant developments and contradictions.

c. Critically evaluate the theoretical and computational literatures and plan experiments that can support or refute them

Предварителни изисквания:

Форми на провеждане:

Учебни форми:

Език, на който се води курса:

Теми, които се разглеждат в курса:

  1. What is analogy? Examples of analogy. Types of analogy. Basic components of analogy-making
  2. Analogical processes: access, mapping, inference, extraction of common principles.
  3. Theories of analogy in psychology and artificial intelligence.
  4. The role-filler binding problem.
  5. Computational approaches to analogy.
  6. Recognition and learning of relations.
  7. Generalization and concept abstraction by structure mapping.
  8. Analogy and other cognitive processes (memory, judgement, and decision making).
  9. Analogical processing in development. Cross-cultural and individual differences.
  10. Analogy in learning, education, and scientific discovery.
  11. Unconscious analogies.
  12. Analogy and emotion.
  13. Analogy in other species – is it possible?
  14. Student Papers Presentations
  15. Student Papers Presentations

Литература по темите:

Blanchette, I., & Dunbar, K. (2002). Representational change and analogy: How analogical inferences alter target representations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(4), 672–685.

Christie, S., Gao, Y., & Ma, Q. (2020). Development of Analogical Reasoning: A Novel Perspective From Cross‐Cultural Studies. Child Development Perspectives, 14(3), 164–170.

Day, S. B., & Gentner, D. (2007). Nonintentional analogical inference in text comprehension. Memory & Cognition, 35(1), 39–49.

Day, S. B., & Goldstone, R. L. (2011). Analogical transfer from a simulated physical system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(3), 551–567.

Doumas, L. A. A., Hummel, J. E., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2008). A theory of the discovery and predication of relational concepts. Psychological Review, 115(1), 1–43.

Dumontheil, I., Houlton, R., Christoff, K., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2010). Development of relational reasoning during adolescence: Relational reasoning development. Developmental Science, 13(6), F15–F24.

Dunbar, K. (1997). How scientists think: On-line creativity and conceptual change in science. In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith, & J. Vaid (Eds.), Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence, discovery, and change (pp. 461–493). American Psychological Association.

Dunbar, K. (2001). The analogical paradox: Why analogy is so easy in naturalistic settings yet so difficult in the psychological laboratory. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science (pp. 313–334). The MIT Press.

Edwards, B. J., Williams, J., Gentner, D., & Lombrozo, T. (2019). Explanation recruits comparison in a category-learning task. Cognition, 185, 21–38.

Feldman, V., Hristova, P., & Kokinov, B. (2010). How does anxiety influence analogical mapping? In S. Ohlsson (Ed.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1453–1458). Cognitive Science Society.

Feldman, V., & Kokinov, B. (2009). Analogical Episodes are More Likely to be Blended than Superficially Similar Ones. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum.

French, R. M., & Hofstadter, D. R. (1991). Tabletop: An emergent, stochastic model of analogy-making. Proceedings, 13th Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, 708–713.

Gentner, D. (1983). Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy. Cognitive Science, 7(2), 155–170.

Gentner, D. (1989). The mechanisms of analogical learning. In S. Vosniadou & A. Ortony (Eds.), Similarity and analogical reasoning (pp. 199–241). Cambridge University Press.

Gentner, D., Brem, S., Ferguson, R., W., Markman, A. B., Levidow, B., B., Wolff, P. W., & Forbus, K. D. (1997). Analogical reasoning and conceptual change: A case study of Johannes Kepler. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6(1), 3–40.

Gentner, D., & Colhoun, J. (2010). Analogical Processes in Human Thinking and Learning. In B. Glatzeder, V. Goel, & A. Müller (Eds.), Towards a Theory of Thinking (pp. 35–48). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Gentner, D., & Forbus, K. D. (2011). Computational models of analogy. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2(3), 266–276.

Gentner, D., & Maravilla, F. (2018). Analogical reasoning. In L. J. Ball & V. A. Thompson (Eds.), International Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (pp. 186–203). New York: Psychology Press.

Gentner, D., & Markman, A. B. (1997). Structure Mapping in Analogy and Similarity. American Psychologist, 52(1), 45–56.

Goldstone, R. L. (1994). The role of similarity in categorization: Providing a groundwork. Cognition, 52(2), 125–157.

Goldwater, M. B., Gentner, D., LaDue, N. D., & Libarkin, J. C. (2021). Analogy Generation in Science Experts and Novices. Cognitive Science, 45(9).

Goldwater, M. B., & Schalk, L. (2016). Relational categories as a bridge between cognitive and educational research. Psychological Bulletin, 142 7, 729–757.

Goswami, U. (1991). Analogical Reasoning: What Develops? A Review of Research and Theory. Child Development, 62(1), 1–22.

Gray, M. E., & Holyoak, K. J. (2021). Teaching by Analogy: From Theory to Practice. Mind, Brain, and Education, 15(3), 250–263.

Green, A. E., Kenworthy, L., Mosner, M. G., Gallagher, N. M., Fearon, E. W., Balhana, C. D., & Yerys, B. E. (2014). Abstract Analogical Reasoning in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Analogy in ASD. Autism Research, 7(6), 677–686.

Hill, F., Santoro, A., Barrett, D. G. T., Morcos, A. S., & Lillicrap, T. (2019). Learning to Make Analogies by Contrasting Abstract Relational Structure.

Hofstadter, D. R. (2001). Epilogue: Analogy at the core of cognition. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science. MIT Press.

Hofstadter, D. R., & Mitchell, M. (1994). The Copycat project: A model of mental fluidity and analogy-making. In K. J. Holyoak & J. A. Barnden (Eds.), Advances in connectionist and neural computation theory: Vol. Vol. 2. Analogical connections (pp. 31–112). Ablex Publishing.

Holyoak, K. J., Gentner, D., & Kokinov, B. (2001). The Place of Analogy in Cognition. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science. MIT Press.

Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1989). Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction. Cognitive Science, 13(3), 295–355.

Hummel, J. E. (2011). Getting symbols out of a neural architecture. Connection Science, 23(2), 109–118.

Hummel, J. E., & Holyoak, K. J. (1997). Distributed representations of structure: A theory of analogical access and mapping. Psychological Review, 104(3), 427–466.

Kokinov, B., & Bliznashki, S. (2009). Analogical transfer of emotions. In B. Kokinov, K. J. Holyoak, & D. Gentner (Eds.), New frontiers in analogy research: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Analogy (pp. 45–53). NBU Press.

Kokinov, B., & French, R. M. (2003). Computational Models of Analogy-making. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Vol. 1, pp. 113–118). Nature Publishing Group.

Kuehne, S., E., Forbus, K. D., Gentner, D., & Quinn, B. (2000). SEQL: Category learning as progressive abstraction using structure mapping. In L. R. Gleitman & A. K. Joshi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 770–775).

Leech, R., Mareschal, D., & Cooper, R. P. (2008). Analogy as relational priming: A developmental and computational perspective on the origins of a complex cognitive skill. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(4), 357–378.

Markman, A. B. (1999). Knowledge representation. L. Erlbaum.

Markman, A. B. (2012). Knowledge Representation. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (1st ed., pp. 36–51). Oxford University Press.

Mutafchieva, M., Goceva, K., & Kokinov, B. (2012). Does Analogy Facilitate Transitive Inference in Young Children? In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2061–2066). Cognitive Science Society.

Mutafchieva, M., & Kokinov, B. (2009). Can Actions Represent Relations? In N. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference on Cognitive Science. Erlbaum.

O’Reilly, R. C., & Busby, R. S. (2002). Generalizable Relational Binding from Coarse-coded Distributed Representations. In T. G. Dietterich, S. Becker, & Z. Ghahramani (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 14. MIT Press.

Penn, D. C., Holyoak, K. J., & Povinelli, D. J. (2008). Darwin’s mistake: Explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(2), 109–130.

Popov, V., & Hristova, P. (2015). Unintentional and efficient relational priming. Memory & Cognition, 43(6), 866–878.

Richland, L. E., Zur, O., & Holyoak, K. J. (2007). MATHEMATICS: Cognitive Supports for Analogies in the Mathematics Classroom. Science, 316(5828), 1128–1129.

Starr, A., Leib, E. R., Younger, J. W., Project iLead Consortium, Uncapher, M. R., & Bunge, S. A. (2022). Relational thinking: An overlooked component of executive functioning. Developmental Science.

Starr, A., Vendetti, M., & Bunge, S. (2018). Eye movements provide insight into individual differences in children’s analogical reasoning strategies. Acta Psychologica, 186, 18–26.

Swan, G., & Wyble, B. (2014). The binding pool: A model of shared neural resources for distinct items in visual working memory. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76(7), 2136–2157.

Thompson, R. K. R., & Oden, D. L. (1998). Why monkeys and pigeons, unlike certain apes, cannot reason analogically. In K. J. Holyoak, D. Gentner, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), Advances in analogy research: Integration of theory and data from the cognitive, computational, and neural sciences (pp. 269–273). New Bulgarian University.

Trudeau, J. J., & Dixon, J. A. (2007). Embodiment and abstraction: Actions create relational representations. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(5), 994–1000.

van der Velde, F., & de Kamps, M. (2015). The necessity of connection structures in neural models of variable binding. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 9(4), 359–370.

Vendetti, M., Knowlton, B. J., & Holyoak, K. J. (2012). The impact of semantic distance and induced stress on analogical reasoning: A neurocomputational account. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(4), 804–812.

Williams, P., Beer, R. D., & Gasser, M. (2008). An embodied dynamical approach to relational categorization. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 223–228). Cognitive Science Society.

Zareva-Toncheva, N., & Kokinov, B. (2003). Blending of non-similar episodes as a result of analogical mapping with a third one. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Средства за оценяване:

Discussion Leader: 30 %

Final Paper: 40 %

Final Paper Presentation: 30%