COGM109 Аналогия

Анотация:

Analogy plays a central role in human cognition: memory, learning, categorization, decision making, among other processes. This course provides an overview of the theoretical and research literatures on analogical reasoning and explores the cognitive mechanisms of analogy and the role of analogical comparison in cognition. The aims of the course are to introduce students to a dynamic area of research and to provide specific examples of interdisciplinary research spanning the fields of cognitive psychology, computational modeling, neuroscience, developmental psychology, and comparative (animal cognition) research. Finally, students will learn more about research developed and conducted at the Research Center for Cognitive Science at NBU.

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Когнитивна наука (на английски език)

Преподавател(и):

доц. Милена Мутафчиева  д-р
доц. Пенка Христова  д-р
ас. Маргарита Павлова  д-р

Описание на курса:

Компетенции:

Upon completion of this course students will:

1. Know:

a. The main computational models and theoretical perspectives of human analogical reasoning

b. The experimental evidence of human analogical reasoning ability and how various factors affect it.

c. The main debates in the field, and the points of view of the leading researchers in the field.

2. Be able to:

a. Demonstrate familiarity with various theoretical and empirical findings as well as the central concepts and ideas in analogy research.

b. Demonstrate a detailed and critical understanding of research papers, both theoretical and empirical, and identify and explain significant developments and contradictions.

c. Critically evaluate the theoretical and computational literatures and plan experiments that can support or refute them


Предварителни изисквания:


Форми на провеждане:
Редовен

Учебни форми:
Лекция

Език, на който се води курса:
Английски

Теми, които се разглеждат в курса:

  1. What is analogy? Examples of analogy. Types of analogy. Basic components of analogy-making
  2. Analogical processes: access, mapping, inference, extraction of common principles.
  3. Theories of analogy in psychology and artificial intelligence.
  4. The role-filler binding problem.
  5. Computational approaches to analogy.
  6. Recognition and learning of relations.
  7. Generalization and concept abstraction by structure mapping.
  8. Analogy and other cognitive processes (memory, judgement, and decision making).
  9. Analogical processing in development. Cross-cultural and individual differences.
  10. Analogy in learning, education, and scientific discovery.
  11. Unconscious analogies.
  12. Analogy and emotion.
  13. Analogy in other species – is it possible?
  14. Student Papers Presentations
  15. Student Papers Presentations

Литература по темите:

Blanchette, I., & Dunbar, K. (2002). Representational change and analogy: How analogical inferences alter target representations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(4), 672–685. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.28.4.672

Christie, S., Gao, Y., & Ma, Q. (2020). Development of Analogical Reasoning: A Novel Perspective From Cross‐Cultural Studies. Child Development Perspectives, 14(3), 164–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12380

Day, S. B., & Gentner, D. (2007). Nonintentional analogical inference in text comprehension. Memory & Cognition, 35(1), 39–49. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195940

Day, S. B., & Goldstone, R. L. (2011). Analogical transfer from a simulated physical system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(3), 551–567. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022333

Doumas, L. A. A., Hummel, J. E., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2008). A theory of the discovery and predication of relational concepts. Psychological Review, 115(1), 1–43. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.115.1.1

Dumontheil, I., Houlton, R., Christoff, K., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2010). Development of relational reasoning during adolescence: Relational reasoning development. Developmental Science, 13(6), F15–F24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.01014.x

Dunbar, K. (1997). How scientists think: On-line creativity and conceptual change in science. In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith, & J. Vaid (Eds.), Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence, discovery, and change (pp. 461–493). American Psychological Association.

Dunbar, K. (2001). The analogical paradox: Why analogy is so easy in naturalistic settings yet so difficult in the psychological laboratory. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science (pp. 313–334). The MIT Press.

Edwards, B. J., Williams, J., Gentner, D., & Lombrozo, T. (2019). Explanation recruits comparison in a category-learning task. Cognition, 185, 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.011

Feldman, V., Hristova, P., & Kokinov, B. (2010). How does anxiety influence analogical mapping? In S. Ohlsson (Ed.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1453–1458). Cognitive Science Society.

Feldman, V., & Kokinov, B. (2009). Analogical Episodes are More Likely to be Blended than Superficially Similar Ones. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum.

French, R. M., & Hofstadter, D. R. (1991). Tabletop: An emergent, stochastic model of analogy-making. Proceedings, 13th Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, 708–713.

Gentner, D. (1983). Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy. Cognitive Science, 7(2), 155–170. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0702_3

Gentner, D. (1989). The mechanisms of analogical learning. In S. Vosniadou & A. Ortony (Eds.), Similarity and analogical reasoning (pp. 199–241). Cambridge University Press.

Gentner, D., Brem, S., Ferguson, R., W., Markman, A. B., Levidow, B., B., Wolff, P. W., & Forbus, K. D. (1997). Analogical reasoning and conceptual change: A case study of Johannes Kepler. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6(1), 3–40.

Gentner, D., & Colhoun, J. (2010). Analogical Processes in Human Thinking and Learning. In B. Glatzeder, V. Goel, & A. Müller (Eds.), Towards a Theory of Thinking (pp. 35–48). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03129-8_3

Gentner, D., & Forbus, K. D. (2011). Computational models of analogy. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2(3), 266–276. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.105

Gentner, D., & Maravilla, F. (2018). Analogical reasoning. In L. J. Ball & V. A. Thompson (Eds.), International Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (pp. 186–203). New York: Psychology Press.

Gentner, D., & Markman, A. B. (1997). Structure Mapping in Analogy and Similarity. American Psychologist, 52(1), 45–56. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.1.45

Goldstone, R. L. (1994). The role of similarity in categorization: Providing a groundwork. Cognition, 52(2), 125–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90065-5

Goldwater, M. B., Gentner, D., LaDue, N. D., & Libarkin, J. C. (2021). Analogy Generation in Science Experts and Novices. Cognitive Science, 45(9). https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.13036

Goldwater, M. B., & Schalk, L. (2016). Relational categories as a bridge between cognitive and educational research. Psychological Bulletin, 142 7, 729–757. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000043

Goswami, U. (1991). Analogical Reasoning: What Develops? A Review of Research and Theory. Child Development, 62(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130701

Gray, M. E., & Holyoak, K. J. (2021). Teaching by Analogy: From Theory to Practice. Mind, Brain, and Education, 15(3), 250–263. https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12288

Green, A. E., Kenworthy, L., Mosner, M. G., Gallagher, N. M., Fearon, E. W., Balhana, C. D., & Yerys, B. E. (2014). Abstract Analogical Reasoning in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Analogy in ASD. Autism Research, 7(6), 677–686. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1411

Hill, F., Santoro, A., Barrett, D. G. T., Morcos, A. S., & Lillicrap, T. (2019). Learning to Make Analogies by Contrasting Abstract Relational Structure. https://doi.org/10.48550/ARXIV.1902.00120

Hofstadter, D. R. (2001). Epilogue: Analogy at the core of cognition. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science. MIT Press.

Hofstadter, D. R., & Mitchell, M. (1994). The Copycat project: A model of mental fluidity and analogy-making. In K. J. Holyoak & J. A. Barnden (Eds.), Advances in connectionist and neural computation theory: Vol. Vol. 2. Analogical connections (pp. 31–112). Ablex Publishing.

Holyoak, K. J., Gentner, D., & Kokinov, B. (2001). The Place of Analogy in Cognition. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science. MIT Press.

Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1989). Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction. Cognitive Science, 13(3), 295–355. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog1303_1

Hummel, J. E. (2011). Getting symbols out of a neural architecture. Connection Science, 23(2), 109–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540091.2011.569880

Hummel, J. E., & Holyoak, K. J. (1997). Distributed representations of structure: A theory of analogical access and mapping. Psychological Review, 104(3), 427–466.

Kokinov, B., & Bliznashki, S. (2009). Analogical transfer of emotions. In B. Kokinov, K. J. Holyoak, & D. Gentner (Eds.), New frontiers in analogy research: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Analogy (pp. 45–53). NBU Press.

Kokinov, B., & French, R. M. (2003). Computational Models of Analogy-making. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Vol. 1, pp. 113–118). Nature Publishing Group.

Kuehne, S., E., Forbus, K. D., Gentner, D., & Quinn, B. (2000). SEQL: Category learning as progressive abstraction using structure mapping. In L. R. Gleitman & A. K. Joshi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 770–775).

Leech, R., Mareschal, D., & Cooper, R. P. (2008). Analogy as relational priming: A developmental and computational perspective on the origins of a complex cognitive skill. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(4), 357–378. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X08004469

Markman, A. B. (1999). Knowledge representation. L. Erlbaum.

Markman, A. B. (2012). Knowledge Representation. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (1st ed., pp. 36–51). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199734689.013.0004

Mutafchieva, M., Goceva, K., & Kokinov, B. (2012). Does Analogy Facilitate Transitive Inference in Young Children? In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2061–2066). Cognitive Science Society.

Mutafchieva, M., & Kokinov, B. (2009). Can Actions Represent Relations? In N. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference on Cognitive Science. Erlbaum.

O’Reilly, R. C., & Busby, R. S. (2002). Generalizable Relational Binding from Coarse-coded Distributed Representations. In T. G. Dietterich, S. Becker, & Z. Ghahramani (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 14. MIT Press.

Penn, D. C., Holyoak, K. J., & Povinelli, D. J. (2008). Darwin’s mistake: Explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(2), 109–130. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X08003543

Popov, V., & Hristova, P. (2015). Unintentional and efficient relational priming. Memory & Cognition, 43(6), 866–878. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-015-0514-6

Richland, L. E., Zur, O., & Holyoak, K. J. (2007). MATHEMATICS: Cognitive Supports for Analogies in the Mathematics Classroom. Science, 316(5828), 1128–1129. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1142103

Starr, A., Leib, E. R., Younger, J. W., Project iLead Consortium, Uncapher, M. R., & Bunge, S. A. (2022). Relational thinking: An overlooked component of executive functioning. Developmental Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.13320

Starr, A., Vendetti, M., & Bunge, S. (2018). Eye movements provide insight into individual differences in children’s analogical reasoning strategies. Acta Psychologica, 186, 18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.002

Swan, G., & Wyble, B. (2014). The binding pool: A model of shared neural resources for distinct items in visual working memory. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76(7), 2136–2157. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-014-0633-3

Thompson, R. K. R., & Oden, D. L. (1998). Why monkeys and pigeons, unlike certain apes, cannot reason analogically. In K. J. Holyoak, D. Gentner, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), Advances in analogy research: Integration of theory and data from the cognitive, computational, and neural sciences (pp. 269–273). New Bulgarian University.

Trudeau, J. J., & Dixon, J. A. (2007). Embodiment and abstraction: Actions create relational representations. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(5), 994–1000. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03194134

van der Velde, F., & de Kamps, M. (2015). The necessity of connection structures in neural models of variable binding. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 9(4), 359–370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11571-015-9331-7

Vendetti, M., Knowlton, B. J., & Holyoak, K. J. (2012). The impact of semantic distance and induced stress on analogical reasoning: A neurocomputational account. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(4), 804–812. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-012-0103-0

Williams, P., Beer, R. D., & Gasser, M. (2008). An embodied dynamical approach to relational categorization. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 223–228). Cognitive Science Society.

Zareva-Toncheva, N., & Kokinov, B. (2003). Blending of non-similar episodes as a result of analogical mapping with a third one. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Средства за оценяване:

Discussion Leader: 30 %

Final Paper: 40 %

Final Paper Presentation: 30%